Top Features of the Capital Markets


There are many different kinds of financial markets, and each of them plays a different role in relation to each other and the investors who use them. Among the many kinds of financial markets, the capital markets are quite the most popular small and big time investors.

Capital Markets with a rendition of various currencies

The capital markets are where companies and industries acquire money that they require for the long term. There are two types of capital markets, namely the primary and secondary market.

In this article, we will talk about the capital markets and its two categories. If you’re eager to learn more about the market in which you are probably a stock or bond investor, you need to read this article! Enjoy,

What are Capital Markets?

In general, you can think that there are broadly two types of financial markets in an economy, namely the capital market and the money market. The capital markets deal in financial instruments and commodities that are also considered long-term securities. They usually have a maturity of at least more than a year.

The capital markets basically have the same functions as the money market. It serves a link between the savings /investors and the wealth creators. The funds gotten can be used for productive purposes and create wealth in the economy in the long term.

One of the most important roles of the capital markets is to spur easier transactions between both the investors and the companies. Both of the parties should find it easy to find each other and the legal aspects of the transaction should roll smoothly.

The Primary Market

The most important type of capital markets is the primary market, which is also referred to as the “new issue market.”  It solely deals with the issuance of new securities that are issued to investors for the first time.

The main role of this type of market is to fund capital for the companies, governments, institutions, and others. It helps investors invest their savings and funds in companies that start new projects or enterprises that are trying to expand their companies.

The companies can raise money in the primary market through the issuance of securities like shares, debentures, loans and deposits, preferences, and others.

Methods of Raising funds

Through Prospectus

This is the most used method in the primary market to raise funds via a public issue. Using this method, the company invites investors and general members of the public to invest in the company via an advertisement, which is also called “prospectus.”

After a prospectus is issued, the public subscribes to shares, debentures, et cetera. According to the response, shares are allotted to the public. If the subscriptions are very high, the allotment will be accomplished through a raffle or pro-rata basis.

The company has the choice to sell the shares directly to the public, though in general companies hire brokers and underwriters. Merchant banks are another choice to help out with the process, particularly during an initial public offering.

Private Placment

Public offers are quite expensive. The incidental costs of IPOs usually are very high.  This is the reason why some companies prefer not to use IPOs. Instead, they offer the  investment opportunities to a chosen few individuals.

The company will then sell its shares to financial institutes, banks, insurance companies, and some chosen individuals. This will aid them in raising funds efficiently, quickly, and cost-effectively. These companies basically do not offer or sell their shares to the public at large.

Rights Issue

In general, when a company is looking to grow or are in need of additional funds, they first turn to their current investors. So the present are provided with an opportunity to further invest in the company. They are given the “right” to buy new shares before the public gets the chance.

This allotment of new shares is accomplished on a pro-rata basis. If the shareholder opts execute this right and buy the shares, he will be given the new shares. On the flip side, if the shareholder opts to let go of this rights issue, then the shares get offered to the public.

The Secondary Market

The secondary market is more commonly referred to as the stock market or the market exchange. In here, the securities like shares, debts, bonds, bills, and others are bought and sold by investors.

The main difference between the primary and the secondary market is that only new securities are issued in the primary market, while the secondary market is meant for already existing securities. There’s no fresh issue in the secondary market.

The securities are traded in a highly regulated and legalized market within strict rules and regulations. This guarantees that investors can trade without the fear of being cheated.


The capital markets help investors find a way to access investment opportunities that can offer those profits and possible growth. They play a huge role in making sure that the growth among companies, governments, and institutions continue.

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